According to the HeYuan build aesthetic principles of yangzhou use
(yangzhou industry vocational college construction engineering building decoration and art design staff room, jiangsu, yangzhou, 225127)
Abstract: the yangzhou HeYuan inheritance of Chinese classical garden art gardening spirit, around the nature and humanity thought, build natural landscape in a limited space. Expression means, make the past serve the present, tongda Chinese and western, the whole design demonstrates China with the style. Combining use the rule of the well, present unique aesthetic interest.
Key word: HeYuan, gardening art, the formal beauty
HeYuan, name and send squealing manor, is the representative work of the late qing dynasty yangzhou garden, was built in qing manage first year (in 1862) and lasted up to 13 years, an area of more than 14000 square meters, points in court, south, east of three parts, for national key units of cultural relics protection, is yangzhou's garden features and style of expression. Its architecture, landscape, flowers and trees management structure, private gardens in China in numbered. And the external form are presented, symmetry, balance ratio, rhythm and tone, change, unity and vision to enjoy the beauty, it is fully showing the formal beauty of application of the principle of proper.
A, landscape architecture art characteristics
Classical Chinese classical garden, no matter be "swim" or "r", is inseparable from the building. The first floor of a building, a pavilion of a corridor set, not only consider the people, stop to rest, LinQuan shelter from the actual needs of daily life, but also to the image of the rich will abound painting and landscape, flowers and trees gardening factors such as artistic together, create appearance the landscape, rich people's spiritual needs. Yangzhou garden, picturesque scenery, give a person with infinite aesthetic feeling. Or pure and fresh, or distant, or both, but by the garden and different. Chinese garden zhuangzi philosophy by any natural, the return of pristine thought influence, formed for a long time the landscapes, building from the gardening art style, the architectural layout maintained that "as the paper" to become scattered on the way, and the natural scenery and blending with each other. And the south park north compared, have the unique style of his own and not of the United States.
The ancient garden building many kinds, one of the most important common to several pavilion, pavilions, corridor. And any garden again with pavilions, corridor for features.
The garden to "in cloud:" the pavilion, stop. So stop to rest and parade also." Refers to a stay, and from the pavilion of Italy, is for people to rest and tour of architecture. Yangzhou landscape architecture of the pavilion, the other wing angles, without the north of the heavy garden house, nor jiangnan garden house small, should say between north and south in between. HeYuan of western water, a single eaves saving FangTing spire of is a white stone, Taiwan has luck around, bridge to the south and the north. Pavilion built-in bench, stone desk, stone, for people to have a rest and sit and watch the landscape around the east wall beautiful window, leakage. And the water pavilion some say HeYuan heart for master of song and dance drama and watch with the stage. It is unique, with qiao the water and the echo of the garden ring corridor, enhance its sound the resonance of the effect. So it has "the first one pavilion" say, is also China's only a water stage.
Space in the garden is the surface, then its point is pavilion, Taiwan, porch, pavilions and other buildings. So, the corridor and various wall is line. But gallery wall than more fully, it is always in the garden view space after, and make them together in a line. Gallery is our country ancient garden is very special take shape building, it can separate the scenic area, the guiding tour, contact the traffic. Gallery dimension small, often through in the discount among the flowers under the willow, by trees, rocks have cloak. But the song again and long continuous form and simple modelling, but have no general buildings curvaceous and simple beauty.
The modelling of porch is very much, have round corridor, curve gallery, water corridor, climbing gallery, gallery, bridge corridor, the complex gallery, empty corridor. Yangzhou landscape architecture of the corridor, build adjust measures to local conditions, form rich, of which the complex way in building double gallery has distinguishing feature quite. And to HeYuan of the complex way in corridor wei wonders. The complex way corridors consists of two layer, or straight or curved, throughout the length of 1500 meters, known as China's overpass prototypes. Carefully watch visible, it based on the terrain change, contain a variety of corridor form. Use double deck corridor fold a kind before the house and backyard space, high and low twists and turns to gallery, developed around in the hall, house between, become a traffic on bond, and the corridor of the complex can connect. Double gallery's main a covered corridor and the complex way take the combination of, the wall between them with assorted empty window. Visible, HeYuan complex way corridors, remove it in the traffic, landscape movement of step outside of meaning, and is a not see more rare scenery.
Second, rockery Richard water wonderful made nature
Chinese classical garden is one of the unique content of stone mountain, make the person is "not hall feast", can enjoy the "LinQuanZhi music", call it made an important way of nature. Yangzhou garden fold mountain stone material is rich, multi-purpose Yellowstone, XuanShi accompany, etc. A large number of top fold stone master name is starting to work in yangzhou, match with great skill, then fold up with, cliff, ease, secluded caves and so on, like the flavor of the mountain view garden story. Any garden, has a "the first mountain", called stone mountain of room. Located in the southeast of the park, is an exquisite YuanZhongYuan of the deep. The door to the west, music winding corridor walked south and east to the marble boat, nanmu with hall. West hall clearing.the north, a green pool, pool, north of the east, have a from northwest to southeast of lake stone rockery, is famous for media, the world only existing copy. The whole garden mountain, west high peak is given priority to, southeast ups and downs for Penn winding, formation of the famous painting "one, yea, even the Vatican remove broken, for a change, like not renew renewal" mountain. And after the forest green wall, the clear water before, mountain side of tall trees YingDai, stone gap Chinese wistaria trailer, quiet and beautiful picturesque.
Because water mountain live, and stone mountain of which depend another wonderful made of natural way, Daniel is water. Richard water, is the gardening imitating natural, make more natural form in the garden of the water. The gardening with water, adjust and improve the microclimate, expand the garden space feeling, increase the effect of gardening depth. The art of water and natural landscape elements of the fuses in together, and flexible way to realize the overall view of the wonderful made its nature. Yangzhou garden, most for simulation of the natural scenery landscape garden, then, the water became the basic material in the garden indispensable one of the form. Of the above mentioned HeYuan stone mountain of the room, left only existing copy of famous mountains, at the same time, the reason of the zoo and don't have water features. Water turn with hill, mountain because water comfortable, this is the garden and the water general relationship between zhongshan. Daniel stone mountain of room of water, the water set each other, because of the rain and mountain springs born, because water and mountain on.
Three, flowers and trees complements the build artistic conception
Chinese classical landscape design, flowers and trees is leading role, is indispensable setoff. Suitable gardening plants a lot, and all sorts of flowers and trees and have different ornamental value. So in the construction of the garden in the process of atmosphere, flowers and trees selection, the configuration, the combination of space and so on, and the growth of plants characteristics, quarter phase change, need to strengthen the cultured, of course, the most important still is to surrounding buildings, landscape and landscape form perfect unity. Yangzhou since ancient times is a green YangCheng guo, and at the same time, to Joan flowers, peony, as a representative of the city. Yangzhou miniascape is one of our country miniascape five schools. Walking in any garden, the viewer will find, la after the build, appropriate flowers and trees, besides interdenominational outside beauty, or set in outside pavilions, or ornament in between rocks, and mountain, water, construction, thus composed HeYuan unique beautiful.
Four, artful because the feeling around in borrowed
The construction of Chinese classical garden, have a deal with garden space law, that is borrow scene. Which can not only the dimensional feeling of expanding garden, and the natural beauty of the surroundings using borrowed park, at the same time also can make artificial create garden in natural melting, add the natural landscape intersting. But which will not borrow vineyard scene, especially some city garden, which of the application of the theory mainly lies in the garden scenery borrowed each other to all kinds of moon cake. Yangzhou city landscape garden all is, of which the park which is almost all the processing scene borrowed each other, HeYuan is no exception. The garden using box scene, leak the landscape of the technique, the picture will be a constant present scenery stereo. If the two things partition, with little blue bricks made joint design, a few surface nearby beautiful window style is not the same spells build by laying bricks or stones, very fine, refined. The middle wall, flat visitors line of sight, monarch has two sides empty window, saw big square brick with spells build by laying bricks or stones ChengHaiTang fancy border. The north and south of the wall on both ends of the other small door monarch. This is the word of the design of seiko wall, the west garden advocate LouTai garden mountain pool of flower obscured his up, increased the garden view level, cause deep feeling, and just is nearby beautiful window, will be a few minutes fully faint garden scenery, but also by two sides empty window, leak out of the water, the skyscrapers, the pavilion wonderful one horn, inspire visitors are anxious to see something inside the fascination. This is not like the wall every, lie between and not every produced by the artistic effect.
Five, limited space create infinite interest
Classical Chinese garden is a landscape painting type of independent self-sufficient small, usually use the fence closed, therefore, only in a limited space, through his own creation, with limited landscape flowers and trees scene made a kind of atmosphere, realize the small in see big. To build gallery, for example, under the wall built in garden covered everywhere all have, but what the the combination, has reached the perfect state. The west campus in south of the pool, is a tall white wall, in garden house and garden up and down between two rows of empty window mixed a partition, to the south of wall of the house XiuLou jade, it is a castle wall, through the window, visible park scenery; On the north wall for garden, it is a double side corridor, this wall covered for wall, according to the wall and build, up and down between the gallery, and through the assorted empty window, south jade XiuLou scenery. For the viewer, is this "with the form and become, in potential and song" gallery, winding corridor of the endless growth a visit to route, extended the time to admire the view, expand the garden space.
The construction of classical Chinese garden art profound wisdom, yangzhou HeYuan is literati home, which is on the culture breath. As a representative of the garden in the late qing dynasty, the "nature and humanity" simple philosophy with the Chinese and western style design should be at the time, the unique. In such a could be called "the heaven" natural style garden, the contents is only a bit, but if the taste carefully, and needs to be further to explore the essence of the still has a lot of, in the future to further enrich.
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2, XuShaoFei, yangzhou garden, suzhou university press, 2001.12