Environmental art design humanized design research
(wuhan in hubei university of engineering, wuhan)
Abstract: the environmental art design of the fundamental purpose is for people living offer an ideal, accord with physiological and psychological demand high quality living space, to meet the demand of environment, will of people and the scene of the relationship of research, this is human nature design train of thought.
Keywords: environmental art design people and landscape, human nature is changed
In today's society, people's food, clothing, shelter and transportation is full of design content, modern design in constructing a the life of modern appearance and behavior patterns, and exerts a subtle changes in human own value judgment and aesthetic thought. Admittedly, the person is in development and at the same time, abuse of natural resources led to the whole of the ecological environment and damage of the imbalance. China in the past 60 years, 50% of the wetlands disappear; In more than 660 cities, two-thirds of city water shortages, almost no one river not polluted, more of the population is under the threat of all kinds of natural disasters. Therefore, in build a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society in the process, respect for nature, protect the natural, and that moderate development and use of natural resources to maintain the harmonious relation between man and nature has become the common understanding. Consciously increase in the interaction between man and the environment, create symbiotic environment system, environmental art design is the basic premise.
A and needs in the environmental art design application embodiment
According to the interpretation of the marxist philosophy, people is a "natural attribute, social attribute and mental attributes" Mosaic. This makes the human needs of the content includes both the physiological needs, and contains the psychological needs and demand of society, etc.
The famous maslow's hierarchy theory of needs to the needs of the people from low to height is divided into: "the physiological needs, security needs, social demand, respect the needs and self realization needs" five categories. With low level and then to a higher level, show the contact with each other and hierarchical relationship between the progressive. Generally speaking, it is only in the lower level needs satisfied after, higher levels of demand will have enough energy driving behavior.
Environmental art design is concerned, to meet the person physiology demand, environmental art design must adapt to physiological habits, such as to touch, the suitable requirements; And for safety requirements, design materials must ensure that the use function of landscape facilities, such as the soundness and ensure the facilities reliability, make the person can normal use them and will not be harmed; Meet the people can be psychological demand by environmental art design form, color, light characteristics, adjust human emotions and provide psychological suggestion, so as to better understand and participate in environment; In order to respect and self realization for the purpose, environmental art design should meet the person aesthetic and social and cultural needs, through the environmental art design details to the grasp of the aesthetic value creation; For environmental art design history and environmental art design the regional characteristic mining reflect environmental art design of the social and cultural value.
Second, focus on human living space of the environmental art design principles
Environmental art design of the fundamental purpose is for the life of people offer an ideal, accord with physiological and psychological demand high quality living space, the space should first accord with natural laws, including construction and the construction of facilities, people's behavior, the use of natural environment, and respect for cultural tradition, conform to the trend of the development of the society, to pay attention to the needs of the spiritual culture.
1. His nature principle
Of all the environmental art design is the people, environmental art design of the object or human. "It is with the person this" is to respect human itself, create consistent with the pattern of the survival of the environment. The modern environmental art design need to meet people's physical, psychological requirements, and need comprehensive to deal with people and the environment, interpersonal relationship, etc, need to be in the context of the serve, comprehensive use function, economic benefit, comfortable and beautiful environment, such as many requirements. Can think modern environmental art design is a comprehensive strong systems engineering, and its starting point and the destination for people and people are the activities of the service.
From a service this-" the cornerstone of function on, need architect meticulous, put yourself in for people to create better environment. Therefore, environmental art design should pay special attention to human body engineering, environmental psychology, aesthetic psychology research, for the scientific, further understanding of the people of the biological features, psychology and behavior visual perception of the environment design requirement. In view of the different people, different use object, correspondingly should consider different design requirements. For example, in the space of the organization, the choice of colour and material, and the environment of the atmosphere foil and so on, all need to study to determine the behavior of people psychological, physical demands.
2. People, the nature, the society harmonious three principles
(1) the person, the nature, the society is composed of three elements of environment, people in the three core location, the rule, governs the nature and society. Although the person with great ability, but also in the innermost layer, also is the most fragile existence, by squeezing from all sides and influence. We can see this relationship between, as shown in figure 1 below.
For a long period of time, human resources, destroy the environment with spell the approach to seek the development of economy, this development is short-sighted and temporary. Science and technology with unprecedented speed and size of the rapid development, enhance the ability of human change nature, figure 1 person, natural, social relationship
To the human society brings unprecedented prosperity,
Also for its further development of preparing the necessary material and technical conditions. To this, people have the eye and optimism. Think you can plundering carried by nature and not the punishment. However, this LveDuoShi production has caused the ecology and the destruction of the life, human nature to light up the red light.
Environmental art are concerned about the environment and its essence is to coordinate the relationship between. Although most of our design of the content is in the artificial environment happen, but does not mean that rule out to society, natural thinking, even in order to create a better artificial environment but need more consideration of natural factors.
(2) the harmony of the three is the main task of the environmental art design
Since people, the nature, the environment is so interdependent relationship, then, as environmental art designers, pursue the harmony of the three became the top priority of our work, it is our design affairs will hold the most important of the design principle and design the first standard evaluation results. Not only is stylist, city planners even city leaders are to have such strong sense of what is harmonious and unified clarity of understanding. Urbanization, globalisation and materialism to future decades of environmental design subject puts forward the challenge, the closest of consists of energy, resources and environment caused by the crisis to sustainability challenge. Environmental art design is facing a future career, sustainable development should become our environment art designer consensus.
Third, the development of environment art and landscape design of human relations
To meet the demand of environment, focus on landscape environment the relationship with the people. That is how human cognitive landscape environment? The environment in the role of how people psychology? People will some of the behavior habit and what kind of outdoor activity way? This is human nature design train of thought.
1. The people to the environment of the reading
First is feeling the environment. As is known to all, the human is through the senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, etc.) to receive surrounding environment of all kinds of information, and through the brain for processing, thus perceive the world around them. Among them, the vision is the most important, and about 85% of the information above is by visual get. People is to learn about its environment through its form, distance, size, color, etc. Next is the hearing, about 10% of the environment information from this. In the landscape beautiful voice often can impress people, such as Chinese ancient la t use natural sounds to create artistic conception, the humble administrator's garden "listen to YuXuan" is a good example. Smell can deepen people to the periphery environment of experience and memory, good smell give people the surprise, such as in the early spring floating lead us to find hidden fragrance open flowers beach early, and unpleasant odor, let people quickly go. Touch make people have "sense" experience. Such as the rainy day whether is a slippery road touch.
In addition, in the environment of human perception between kinesthesia and WenJiao also nots allow to ignore. Kinesthesia to the body movements and its position is the feeling of state. Chinese classical la t use of kinesthetic sense "to design la route, and formed a" winding path leading to a secluded spot, "" back", "milk", "enlightened" the effect. This method is called dynamic view method. People for the feeling of temperature and air is "WenJiao". Such as sorching summer, would be that people in the shade of green grass for the good place of; And your open square can make the person at a respectful distance.
Different feeling is not isolated, but exist influence each other, the organic combination. When sensory stimulation combination proper, can give a person with beautiful environment experience.
(2) the cognitive environment
Cognitive environment is feeling in established on the basis of the environment. "Cognitive" refers to acquire knowledge of the process, including the perception, representation, memory, thinking, etc., and the thinking is the core of it. Such as a city, local residents and outsiders cognitive are different. Residents pay more attention to their life, area of work, and tourists may take tourist attractions in series; In addition to gender, age, interests caused by differences in difference of knowledge to the environment, such as when the urban landscape change, young people will be sensitive to cognition, and the elderly will be relatively slow and vacant.
(3) evaluation environment
In the process of human consciousness abnormality and cultural roots will play an important role. For instance in green tone gives priority to the environment, even if not really plants can also make a person feel vitality; Be like again old town, through streets will let throughout your generations local special kind. And cognitive environment, the evaluation environment also can vary from person to person. For example, some city of tourist attractions for tourists with relish, but no local residents praised; Be like again children's park, a child will put its "interest level" as evaluation standard; And parents have will pay attention to its "safety degree".
In daily work, we can through the questionnaire survey and the form of an interview to landscape environment research, and to learn of the evaluation of the users. It will be more convenient for us to understand the environment influence to the person, can consider it from the humanness, be helpful for we proposed reform plan, also for other landscape design provide experience.
2. People in the environment activities
Only when the landscape in outdoor activities, landscape environment to reflect the value of it. Therefore, researchers outdoor activities and behavior habits very key way.
(1) for the behavior study habits
In landscape design should, prior to the users of outdoor behavior habits carries on the comprehensive analysis. The so-called behavior habits, is people in everyday activities fixed behavior, for the performance of the actors more thinking which activity to make a decision.
Environmental psychology thought, in the outdoor environment of human behavior habits will for age, gender, regional, social culture, and the formation of a difference between differences. Such as shopping or play park, young people and children often don't like came back and choose not to backtrack, and explore new environmental information; Older people are much more inclined to return to the way to meet and psychological state. Despite these differences, but the person's behavior habits will also has a certain general character. For instance people all like "short cut, cut"; Like watching the children play; In the main square in activities for things will depend on; The Chinese people are used to pass on the right, the British people are used to pass on the left; And so on.
(2) the research of outdoor activities
The design of humanistic landscape space is ultimately for outdoor activities provide good place, therefore, pay attention to the people's activities itself is the key. In research "outdoor activities" method, usually by five W method (when-who-where-why-what). That is what time, what people observe, where, why purpose, engaged in what activities. Of course, these factors are not isolated existence, it shall put them together. Understand the specific populations in the specified period activities mode and action rule, such as the modern city park, in the morning is the elderly residents fitness paradise; Night and become lovers and shopping the have a rest place shoppers; The students of the school near school, like school through the park, noon time also like to walk this repast. These complex personnel activities decided to the park function space diversity design, so as to meet the needs of different people.
Excellent environmental art design should be based on people's behavior habit and activity rules to design. The design methods and points are many, according to different environment, different needs and each different. Like the urban public square to want to notice to attract popularity, but can't cause congestion; Should notice to open public sex to meet large crowds and large rally, but must be balanced illicit close sex to meet the needs of the date chat.
To sum up, the environmental art designers to people, nature, society from the concept of harmonious coexistence, and this is the quintessence of humanized design. (note: this article for hubei province 2009 annual hubei science and technology research funding. Project name: catering environment thematic design and humanism design research. Project number: Q20091507)
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